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​Land Management
Native wapato re-established itself in the Columbia River estuary one year after a BPA-funded project to remove invasive reed canary grass and open up floodplains to restore natural flows.

With the land acquisition and improvement phase of wildlife mitigation largely complete, BPA and its partners have turned to the job of maintaining the properties and their natural resources.

Historically, BPA used long-term operations and maintenance agreements for this purpose. More recently, BPA began providing stewardship funding. 

Stewardship funding is an innovative way to guarantee long-term operations and maintenance funding in perpetuity. Rather than providing annual payments for operations and maintenance, BPA provides a one-time, lump sum payment for operating and maintaining the parcel.  

Fencing on this range in Idaho’s Sawtooth Mountains helps keep cattle out of fragile streams that are home to salmon and steelhead.

Partners manage the fund as they deem appropriate to protect the land. They might create an endowment fund that yields interest and allows for a specified draw-down each year. They can deposit income from permitted activities, such as timber receipts, grazing lease fees, recreational or hunting fees, and help sustain the fund.

BPA has provided this stewardship funding in most of its recent wildlife settlement agreements.


​Memorandum of Agreement